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Every Casualty Counts
Local victims of the Holocaust - Mannheim, Germany
“Casualty recording” and “civilian harm tracking”
Adopting common definitions
Are the drone attacks in north-west Pakistan part of a Non-International Armed Conflict?
Benefits of collecting casualty data
Casualty recording by central government
Casualty recording in Afghanistan
Challenge to casualty recording: limited resources
Challenge to casualty recording: reliability of the data
Challenge to casualty recording: under-reporting
Challenges to Casualty Recording: Limited Scope
Civil society: press and media reports
Civilian harm tracking and recording in a global context
Civilian status: Women and Children
Civilians participating in hostilities
Combatant status: the concept of ‘continuous combat function’
Confidentiality and exclusivity
Consistency in casualty recording
Corroboration in casualty recording
Dealing with ambiguity when publishing or releasing information
Death of prisoners of war
Developing combat status definitions
Difficulties accessing information
Dilemmas recorders confront when recording status
Direct and indirect conflict deaths
Do recorders prioritise major international press agencies?
Documentary evidence: official reports and data
Does every death need to be recorded?
Evidence as source of information
Exceptions to the provisions of International Human Rights Law
Four areas of casualty recording standards
Geneva Conventions provisions for missing persons and remains
Grey areas in definitions
Having a transparent methodology
Hospital and medico-legal institution reports
How civilian casualties were “tracked” in Afghanistan
How do casualty recorders deal with disagreement between sources?
How should casualty recorders communicate their data?
How significant is methodology?
Human rights organisations as sources
Human rights that need to be upheld by the state
In which language should the data be published?
Inclusion criteria developed from external sources including International Humanitarian Law (IHL)
Inclusions and exclusions of casualties
Inclusiveness in casualty recording
Information from the victim’s family or group
Information on casualties given by the perpetrator
Information on funders
Investigating the broader context in which casualties occur
Is corroboration of information always necessary?
Is human dignity recognised in International Human Rights Law?
Is it important for Casualty Recorders to provide about political or other affiliations?
Is social media a good source of information?
Is the obligation to record civilian casualties supported by International Human Rights Law?
Is the right to life always protected by the state?
Is the situation in Afghanistan a Non-International Armed Conflict?
Is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights legally binding?
Legal obligations binding participants in drone attacks
Legitimate targets in a Non-International Armed Conflict
Legitimate targets in an International Armed Conflict
Lessons from Afghanistan on civilian harm tracking and casualty recording
Obstacles to media reporting
Organised Armed Groups
Oxford Research Group and Action on Armed Violence joint recommendations for the advancement of casualty recording
People as source of information
Recommendation: define a comprehensive scope
Recommendation: enhance reliability of the data
Recommendation: profit from technological advances
Recommendation: record injuries as well as deaths
Recommendation: strengthen political commitment
Recommendation: use the data to inform action
Recording using an on-the-ground network
Religious organisations as sources
Rules that casualty recorders apply to assigning status
Sources of information: combining people and evidence
Sources of information: documents first, people later
Standardising information collected: a data model
State agencies: military and intelligence reports
Targeted killings as a counterterrorism measure under the law enforcement model
The 5 principles of casualty recording
The benefits of casualty recording
The core premises of casualty recording
The Geneva Conventions and civilian casualties
The Geneva Conventions and military casualties
The importance of transparency
The international responsibilities and accountability of a state
The requirement of witness consent
The Right to Truth
The rights to privacy and family life
The risk of data collection
The safety of casualty recorders
The state and the right to derogate under International Human Rights Law
The use of lethal force against suspected terrorists under a law enforcement model
Transparency about objectives and rationale
Undertaking outreach activities
Use of multiple sources of data
Victim status: who are civilians? A legal definition
Weapons used in aerial and ground attacks
What data should casualty recorders collect?
What is a Non-International Armed Conflict?
What is an International Armed Conflict?
What is an internationalised armed conflict?
What is casualty recording?
Which acts of violence are considered part of the conflict?
Whose responsibility is casualty recording?
Why have standards for casualty recording?
Why is it important to record casualties of armed conflict?
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