Civilian harm tracking and casualty recording are two distinct approaches to documenting civilian harm and both are increasingly recognised as emerging practice by states, conflict parties, international organisations, and civil society.
Casualty recording is the process of documenting – in a systematic and continuous manner – every individual killed or injured in armed violence and can be undertaken by civil society, intergovernmental organisations, or state actors. Casualty recording strives for a complete and transparent record, including detailed information about casualties and the incidents in which individuals were harmed.
Civilian harm tracking is an internal process by which an armed actor can systematically gather data on civilian deaths and injuries, property damage or destruction, and other instances of civilian harm caused by its operations.
Both practices create a specific space in which information regarding suspected or confirmed civilian casualties can be recognised and addressed.
Examining Civilian Harm Tracking and Casualty Recording in Afghanistan, pp. 1-2